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Union Kiel

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Union Kiel Video

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Postal service between Norway and Sweden was resumed. The Swedish general in the occupied border regions of Norway, Magnus Fredrik Ferdinand Björnstjerna , threatened to resume hostilities if the Norwegians would not abide by the armistice agreement and willingly accept the union with Sweden.

Christian Frederik was reputed to have fallen into a deep depression and was variously blamed for the battleground defeats.

In late September, a dispute arose between Swedish authorities and the Norwegian council of state over the distribution of grain among the poor in Christiania.

The grain was intended as a gift from the "Norwegian" king to his new subjects, but it became a matter of principle for the Norwegian council to avoid the appearance that Norway had a new king until the transition was formalized.

Björnstjerna sent several missives threatening to resume hostilities. In early October, Norwegians again refused to accept a shipment of corn from Bernadotte, and Norwegian merchants instead took up loans to purchase food and other necessities from Denmark.

However, by early October, it was generally accepted that the union with Sweden was inevitable. On 7 October, an extraordinary session of the Storting convened.

On 10 October, Christian Frederik abdicated according to the conditions agreed on at Moss and embarked for Denmark. Executive powers were provisionally assigned to the Storting, until the necessary amendments to the Constitution could be enacted.

One day before the cease-fire would expire, the Storting voted 72 to 5 to join Sweden in a personal union, but a motion to elect Charles XIII king of Norway failed to pass.

The issue was set aside pending the necessary constitutional amendments. In the following days, the Storting passed several resolutions to assert as much sovereignty as possible within the union.

On 1 November they voted 52 to 25 that Norway would not appoint its own consuls, a decision that later would have serious consequences. The Storting adopted the constitutional amendments that were required to allow for the union on 4 November and unanimously elected Charles XIII King of Norway, rather than acknowledging him as such.

The new king never set foot in his Norwegian kingdom, but his adopted heir Charles John arrived in Christiania on 18 November In his meeting with the Storting, he accepted the election and swore to uphold the constitution on behalf of the king.

In his speech, the crown prince emphasized that the Union was a league that the king had entered into with the people of Norway, and that "he had chosen to take on the obligations that were of greater value to his heart, those that expressed the love of the people, rather than the privileges that were acquired through solemn treaties.

In order to understand the nature of the Union, it is necessary to know the historical events that led to its establishment. These demonstrate clearly that Sweden, aided by the major powers, forced Norway to enter the Union.

On the other hand, Norway, aided by the same powers, essentially dictated the terms of the Union. Seeds of discord were of course inherent in a constitutional association of two parties based on such conflicting calculations.

Sweden saw the Union as the realization of an idea that had been nursed for centuries, one that had been strengthened by the recent loss of Finland.

It was hoped that with time, the reluctant Norwegians would accept a closer relationship. The Norwegians, however, as the weaker party, demanded strict adherence to the conditions that had been agreed on, and jealously guarded the consistent observance of all details that confirmed the equality between the two states.

An important feature of the Union was that Norway had a more democratic constitution than Sweden. The Norwegian constitution of adhered more strictly to the principle of separation of powers between the executive , legislative and judicial branches.

Norway had a modified unicameral legislature with more authority than any legislature in Europe. In contrast, Sweden's king was a near-autocrat; the Instrument of Government stated unequivocally that "the king alone shall govern the realm.

During the early years of the Union, an influential class of civil servants dominated Norwegian politics; however, they were few in number, and could easily lose their grip if the new electors chose to take advantage of their numerical superiority by electing members from the lower social strata.

To preserve their hegemony, civil servants formed an alliance with prosperous farmers in the regions.

A policy conducive to agriculture and rural interests secured the loyalty of farmers. Legislation that encouraged popular participation in local government culminated with the introduction of local self-government in , creating the rural Formannskapsdistrikt , corresponding to the parishes of the State Church of Norway.

Popular participation in government gave more citizens administrative and political experience, and they would eventually promote their own causes, often in opposition to the class of civil servants.

The increasing democratization of Norway would in time tend to drive the political systems of Norway and Sweden farther apart, complicate the cooperation between the two countries, and ultimately lead to the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.

For instance, while the king had the power of absolute veto in Sweden, he only had a suspending veto in Norway. Charles John demanded that the Storting grant him an absolute veto, but was forced to back down.

A watershed in this process came in , when Norway became the first Scandinavian monarchy to adopt parliamentary rule.

After , the king was no longer able to appoint a government entirely of his own choosing or keep it in office against the will of the Storting. Instead, he could only appoint members of the party or coalition having a majority in the Storting.

The Council also became answerable to the Storting, so that a failed vote of confidence would cause the government to resign.

By comparison, parliamentary rule was not established in Sweden until —just before the end of the union.

The lack of a common constitutional foundation for the Union was felt strongly by crown prince Charles John during its first year.

The fundamental documents were only the Convention of Moss and the revised Norwegian constitution of 4 November But the conservative Swedish Riksdag had not allowed the Swedish constitution to be revised.

Therefore, a bilateral treaty had to be negotiated in order to clarify procedures for treating constitutional questions that had to be decided jointly by both governments.

The Act of Union Riksakten was negotiated during the spring of , with prime minister Peder Anker leading the Norwegian delegation.

The treaty contained twelve articles dealing with the king's authority, the relationship between the two legislatures, how the executive power was to be exercised if the king should die before the crown prince had attained majority, and the relationship between the cabinets.

It also confirmed the practice of treating questions of foreign policy in the Swedish cabinet, with the Norwegian prime minister present.

Vital questions pertaining to the Union were to be treated in a joint cabinet meeting, where all the Norwegian ministers in Stockholm would be present.

In Sweden the Act of Union was a set of provisions under regular law, but the Norwegian Storting gave it constitutional status, so that its provisions could only be revised according to the procedures laid down in the constitution.

The conditions of the Union as laid down in the Convention of Moss , the revised Norwegian constitution, and the Act of Union, secured for Norway more independence than was intended in the Treaty of Kiel.

To all appearances, Norway had entered the Union voluntarily and steadfastly denied Swedish superiority, while many Swedes saw Norway as an inferior partner and a prize of war.

Legally, Norway had the status of an independent constitutional monarchy, with more internal independence than it had enjoyed in over years.

While it shared a common monarch and a common foreign policy with Sweden, all other ministries and government institutions were separate from each state.

Norway had its own army, navy and treasury. The foreign service was directly subordinate to the king, an arrangement that was embodied already in the Norwegian constitution of 17 May , before the revision of 4 November.

An unforeseen effect was that foreign policy was decided in the Swedish cabinet and conducted by the Swedish ministry of foreign affairs.

When matters of foreign policy were discussed in cabinet meetings, the only Norwegian present who could plead Norway's case was the prime minister.

The Swedish Riksdag could indirectly influence foreign policy, but not the Norwegian Storting. Because the representations abroad were appointed by the Swedish government and mostly staffed with Swedes, the Union was often seen by foreigners as functioning like a single state rather than two sovereign states.

Over time, however, it became less common to refer to the union as "Sweden" and instead to jointly reference it as "Sweden and Norway".

According to the Norwegian constitution, the king was to appoint his own cabinet. Because the king mostly resided in Stockholm , a section of the cabinet led by the prime minister had to be present there, accompanied by two ministers.

The first prime minister was Peder Anker , who had been prominent among the Norwegians who framed the constitution, and had openly declared himself to be in favor of the Union.

The Norwegian government acquired a splendid town house, Pechlinska huset , as the residence of the cabinet section in Stockholm, which also served as an informal "embassy" of Norway.

The other six Christiania-based ministers were in charge of their respective government departments. In the king's absence, meetings of the Christiania cabinet were chaired by the viceroy stattholder , appointed by the king as his representative.

The first to hold that office was count Hans Henrik von Essen , who had already at the conclusion of the Kiel treaty been appointed governor-general of Norway when the expected Swedish occupation would be effective.

The next viceroys were also Swedes, and this consistent policy during the first 15 years of the Union was resented in Norway.

From onwards, the viceroys were Norwegians, until the office was left vacant after , and finally abolished in After the accession of Charles John in , he tried to bring the two countries closer together and to strengthen the executive power.

These efforts were mostly resisted by the Norwegian Storting. In , the king proposed constitutional amendments that would give him absolute veto , widened authority over his ministers, the right to rule by decree, and extended control over the Storting.

A further provocation was his efforts to establish a new hereditary nobility in Norway. He put pressure on the Storting by arranging military maneuvers close to Christiania while it was in session.

Nonetheless, all of his propositions were given thorough consideration, and then rejected. They were received just as negatively by the next Storting in , and then shelved, save for the question of an extended veto.

That demand was repeatedly put before every Storting during the king's lifetime to no avail. The most controversial political issue during the early reign of Charles John was the question of how to settle the national debt of Denmark-Norway.

The impoverished Norwegian state tried to defer or reduce the payment of 3 million speciedaler to Denmark, the amount that had been agreed upon.

This led to a bitter conflict between the king and the Norwegian government. Though the debt was finally paid by means of a foreign loan, the disagreement that it had provoked led to the resignation of count Wedel-Jarlsberg as minister of finance in His father-in-law, prime minister Peder Anker, resigned soon after because he felt that he was mistrusted by the king.

The answer from Norwegian politicians to all royal advances was a strict adherence to a policy of constitutional conservatism , consistently opposing amendments that would extend royal power or lead to closer ties and eventual amalgamation with Sweden, instead favoring regional autonomy.

The differences and mistrust of these early years gradually became less pronounced, and Charles John's increasingly accommodating attitude made him more popular.

After riots in Stockholm in the fall of , the king found Christiania more convivial, and while there, he agreed to several demands.

In a joint meeting of the Swedish and Norwegian cabinets on 30 January , a Union committee with four members from each country was appointed to solve contested questions between them.

When the Storting of convened in his presence, he was received with great affection by the politicians and the public. Another bone of contention was the question of national symbols — flags , coats of arms, royal titles, and the celebration of 17 May as the national day.

Charles John strongly opposed the public commemoration of the May constitution, which he suspected of being a celebration of the election of Christian Frederik.

Instead, but unsuccessfully, he encouraged the celebration of the revised constitution of 4 November, which was also the day when the Union was established.

This conflict culminated with the Battle of the Square torvslaget in Christiania on 17 May , when peaceful celebrations escalated into demonstrations, and the chief of police read the Riot Act and ordered the crowd to disperse.

Finally, army and cavalry units were called in to restore order with some violence. The public outcry over this provocation was so great that the king had to acquiesce to the celebration of the national day from then on.

Norwegians considered it offensive that it was also displayed on Swedish coins and government documents, as if Norway was an integral part of Sweden.

They also resented the fact that the king's title on Norwegian coins until was king of Sweden and Norway. He immediately began to use the title king of Norway and Sweden in all documents relating to Norwegian matters.

The proposals of a joint committee with regard to flags and arm were enacted for both countries. A union mark was placed in the canton of all flags in both nations, combining the flag colours of both countries, equally distributed.

The two countries obtained separate, but parallel flag systems, clearly manifesting their equality. Norwegians were pleased to find the former common war flag and naval ensign replaced by separate flags.

The Norwegian arms were removed from the greater arms of Sweden, and common Union and royal arms were created to be used exclusively by the royal family, by the foreign service, and on documents pertaining to both countries.

A significant detail of the Union arms is that two royal crowns were placed above the escutcheon to show that it was a union between two sovereign kingdoms.

Union naval jack and diplomatic flag — The middle years of the 19th century were peaceful ones for the Union. The completion of the Kongsvinger Line , the first railway connection across the border, greatly sped up communications.

A political climate of conciliation was advanced by Swedish concessions on the issue of equality between the countries. Scandinavism was at its height during this period and contributed to increasing rapprochement between the Union partners.

It supported the idea of Scandinavia as a unified region or a single nation, based on the common linguistic, political, and cultural heritage of the Scandinavian countries.

These three countries are referred to as "three brothers" in the sixth stanza of the national anthem of Norway.

This elite movement was initiated by Danish and Swedish university students in the s. In the beginning, the political establishments in the two countries were suspicious of the movement.

However, when Oscar I became king of Sweden and Norway in , the relationship with Denmark improved and the movement started to gain support.

Norwegian students joined in and participated in annual meetings alternating between the countries. During the war between Denmark and Prussia in , King Oscar offered support in the form of a Norwegian-Swedish expeditionary force, though the force never saw combat.

The movement received a blow from which it never fully recovered after the second Danish-German war over Schleswig in , when the Swedish and Norwegian governments jointly forced King Charles XV to retract the promise of military support that he had given to the king of Denmark without consulting his cabinets.

By then, the Union had lost its support among Norwegians because of the setback caused by the issue of abolishing the office of viceroy.

King Charles XV was in favor of this Norwegian demand, and after his accession in promised his Norwegian cabinet that he would sanction a decision of the Storting to this effect.

The proposition to do away with this detested symbol of dependency and instead replace it with the office of a prime minister in Christiania was nearly unanimously carried.

When the king returned to Stockholm, he was met by an unsuspectedly strong reaction from the Swedish nationalist press. Nya Dagligt Allehanda cried out that Norway had strayed from the path of lawfulness and turned toward revolution.

The Riksdag demanded to have its say on the question. The crux of the matter was whether it was purely Norwegian or of concern to both countries.

The conservative Swedish majority proclaimed Sweden's "rightful superior position in the Union". King Charles was forced to retreat when the Swedish cabinet threatened to resign.

He chose not to sanction the law, but as a concession to wounded Norwegian sentiments, he did it anyway in a Norwegian cabinet meeting.

But his actions had inadvertently confirmed that he was more Swedish than Norwegian, despite his good intentions. On 24 April , the Norwegian Storting reacted to the Swedish claim to supremacy by unanimously resolving that the Norwegian state had the sole right to amend its own constitution, and that any revision of the conditions of the Union had to be based on the principle of complete equality.

This resolution would for many years block any attempts to revise the Act of Union. A new joint committee was appointed in , but its proposals were rejected in because it did not provide for equal influence on foreign policy, and would pave the way for a federal state.

The relations with Norway during the reign of King Oscar II — had great influence on political life in Sweden, and more than once it seemed as if the union between the two countries was on the point of ending.

The dissensions chiefly had their origin in the demand by Norway for separate consuls and eventually a separate foreign service.

Norway had, according to the revised constitution of , the right to separate consular offices, but had not exercised that right partly for financial reasons, partly because the consuls appointed by the Swedish foreign office generally did a satisfactory job of representing Norway.

During the late 19th century, however, Norway's merchant marine grew rapidly to become one of the world's largest, and one of the most important factors of the national economy.

It was increasingly felt that Norway needed separate consuls who could assist shipping and national interests abroad. Partly, the demand for separate consuls also became a symbolic one, a way to assert the growing disillusionment with the Union.

In Norway, dissension on constitutional questions led to the de facto adoption of parliamentarism in , after an impeachment process against the conservative cabinet of Christian August Selmer.

The cabinet was accused of assisting the king in obstructing reform by veto. The new liberal government of Johan Sverdrup was reluctantly installed by King Oscar.

It immediately implemented important reforms, among them extended suffrage and compulsory military service. The liberals won a great majority in the elections of on a program of universal suffrage for all men and a separate Norwegian foreign service.

As a first step, the new Steen government proposed separate consular services, and negotiations with Sweden were initiated.

But royal opposition caused a series of cabinet crises until a coalition government was formed in with Francis Hagerup as prime minister.

That year, the third joint Union committee was appointed, with seven members from each country, but it never agreed on crucial issues and was promptly disbanded in Faced with saber-rattling from militarily superior Sweden, Norway had to withdraw the demands for separate consuls in That miserable retreat convinced the government that the armed forces had been neglected too long, and rapid rearmament was initiated.

Four battleships were ordered from the United Kingdom, and border fortifications were constructed. In the midst of negotiations and discussions that were in vain, in the Swedish government gave notice to Norway that the current commercial treaty of , which had provided for a promising common market, would lapse in July When Sweden reverted to protectionism, Norway also raised customs duties, and the result was a considerable diminution of trade across the border.

Count Lewenhaupt, the Swedish minister of foreign affairs, who was considered to be too friendly towards the Norwegians, resigned and was replaced by Count Ludvig Douglas , who represented the opinion of the majority in the First Chamber.

However, when the Storting in for the third time passed a bill for a "pure" flag without the Union badge, it became law without royal sanction. The new elections to the Riksdag of showed clearly that the Swedish people were not inclined to follow the ultraconservative "patriotic" party, which resulted in the resignation of the two leaders of that party, Professor Oscar Alin and Court Marshal Hofmarschall Patric Reuterswärd as members of the First Chamber.

On the other hand, ex-Professor E. Carlson, of the Gothenburg University , succeeded in forming a party of Liberals and Radicals to the number of about 90 members, who asides from being in favor of the extension of the franchise, advocated full equality of Norway with Sweden in the management of foreign affairs.

The Norwegian elections of the same year with extended franchise gave the Liberals Venstre a great majority for their program of a separate foreign service and separate consuls.

Steen stayed on as prime minister, but was succeeded by Otto Blehr in The question of separate consuls for Norway soon came up again.

In foreign minister Lagerheim in a joint council of state proposed separate consular services, while keeping the common foreign service.

The Norwegian government agreed to the appointment of another joint committee to consider the question. It proposed that the relations of the separate consuls to the joint ministry of foreign affairs and the embassies should be arranged by identical laws, which could not be altered or repealed without the consent of the governments of both countries.

But it was no formal agreement, only a preliminary sketch, not binding on the governments. A new coalition government under Hagerup was formed in October , backed by a national consensus on the need conclude the negotiations by joint action.

King Oscar asked the governments to work out proposals for identical laws. The Norwegian draft for identical laws was submitted in May It was met with total silence from Stockholm.

While Norway had never had a Storting and a cabinet more friendly to the Union, it turned out that political opinion in Sweden had moved in the other direction.

Boström now appeared on his own in Christiania and presented his unexpected principles or conditions for a settlement. His government had reverted to the stand that the Swedish foreign minister should retain control over the Norwegian consuls and, if necessary, remove them, and that Sweden should always be mentioned before Norway in official documents a break with the practice introduced in The Norwegian government found these demands unacceptable and incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway.

As the foreign minister was to be Swedish, he could not exercise authority over a Norwegian institution.

Further negotiations on such terms would be purposeless. A counter-proposal by the Swedish government was likewise rejected, and on 7 February the King in joint council decided to break off the negotiations that he had initiated in Notwithstanding this, the exhausted king still hoped for an agreement.

On the next day Crown Prince Gustaf was appointed regent, and on 13 February appeared in Christiania to try to save the Union. During his month in Christiania, he had several meetings with the government and the parliamentary Special Committee that had been formed on 18 February to work out the details on national legislation to establish Norwegian consuls.

He begged them not to take steps that would lead to a break between the countries. But to no avail, as the Special Committee recommended on 6 March to go ahead with the work in progress, and the conciliatory Hagerup cabinet was replaced with the more unyielding cabinet of Christian Michelsen.

Back in Stockholm on 14 March, Crown Prince Gustaf called a joint council on 5 April to appeal to both governments to return to the negotiation table and work out a solution based on full equality between the two kingdoms.

He proposed reforms of both the foreign and consular services, with the express reservation that a joint foreign minister — Swedish or Norwegian — was a precondition for the existence of the Union.

The Norwegian government rejected his proposal on 17 April, referring to earlier fruitless attempts, and declared that it would go on with preparations for a separate consular service.

But both chambers of the Riksdag approved the proposal of the crown prince on 2 May In a last attempt to placate the recalcitrant Norwegians, Boström, considered to be an obstacle to better relations, was succeeded by Johan Ramstedt.

But these ouvertures did not convince the Norwegians. Norwegians of all political convictions had come to the conclusion that a fair solution to the conflict was impossible, and there was now a general consensus that the Union had to be dissolved.

Michelsen's new coalition cabinet worked closely with the Storting on a plan to force the issue by means of the consular question. On 23 May the Storting passed the government's proposal for the establishment of separate Norwegian consuls.

King Oscar, who again had resumed the government, made use of his constitutional right to veto the bill on 27 May, and according to plan, the Norwegian ministry tendered their resignation.

The king, however, declared he could not accept their resignation, "as no other cabinet can now be formed". The ministers refused to obey his demand that they countersign his decision, and immediately left for Christiania.

No further steps were taken by the King to restore normal constitutional conditions. In the meantime, the formal dissolution was set to be staged at a sitting of the Storting on 7 June.

The ministers placed their resignations in its hands, and the Storting unanimously adopted a planned resolution declaring the union with Sweden dissolved because Oscar had effectively "ceased to act as King of Norway" by refusing to form a new government.

It further stated that, as the king had declared himself unable to form a government, the constitutional royal power "ceased to be operative.

Pending further instructions, they were vested with the executive power normally vested in the king pending the amendments necessary to reflect the fact that the union had been dissolved.

Swedish reactions to the action of the Storting were strong. The king solemnly protested and called an extraordinary session of the Riksdag for 20 June to consider what measures should be taken after the "revolt" of the Norwegians.

The Riksdag declared that it was willing to negotiate the conditions for the dissolution of the Union if the Norwegian people, through a plebiscite , had declared themselves in favor.

The Riksdag also voted for million kronor to be available as the Riksdag might decide the matter. It was understood, but not openly stated, that the amount was held in readiness in case of war.

The unlikely threat of war was seen as real on both sides, and Norway answered by borrowing 40 million kroner from France, for the same unstated purpose.

The Norwegian government knew in advance of the Swedish demands, and forestalled it by declaring a plebiscite for 13 August —before the formal Swedish demand for a plebiscite was made, thus forestalling any claim that the referendum was made in response to demands from Stockholm.

The people were not asked to answer yes or no to the dissolution, but to "confirm the dissolution that had already taken place".

The response was , votes for the dissolution and only against, an overwhelming majority of over 99 percent. After a request from the Storting for Swedish cooperation to repeal the Act of Union, delegates from both countries convened at Karlstad on 31 August.

The talks were temporarily interrupted along the way. At the same time, troop concentrations in Sweden made the Norwegian government mobilize its army and navy on 13 September.

Agreement was nevertheless reached on 23 September. The main points were that disputes between the countries should in the future be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at The Hague , that a neutral zone should be established on both sides of the border, and that the Norwegian fortifications in the zone were to be demolished.

Both parliaments soon ratified the agreement and revoked the Act of Union on 16 October. Ten days later, King Oscar renounced all claims to the Norwegian crown for himself and his successors.

The Storting asked Oscar to allow a Bernadotte prince to accede to the Norwegian throne in hopes of reconciliation, but Oscar turned this offer down.

The Storting then offered the vacant throne to Prince Carl of Denmark, who accepted after another plebiscite had confirmed the monarchy.

The events of put an end to the uneasy Union between Sweden and Norway that was entered into in — reluctantly by Norway, coerced by Swedish force.

The events of both years have much in common, but there are significant differences:.

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